Shashmaqom – highly professional vocal art

Shashmaqom (translated from Persian as “six maqams”, rost, navo, dugokh, segoh, irok.) is one of the main genres of classical music of Central Asia, represented in the culture of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. This is refined instrumental music and highly professional vocal art.
Bukhara is the birthplace of Shashmakom. Shashmaqom absorbed the bright traditions and stylistic features of the musical culture of this people.
Bukhara Shashmakom is one of the main types of classical music in Central Asia, which was formed over several centuries in the context of the ancient musical traditions of Bukhara.
The formation of Shashmaqom was influenced by the traditions of maqamat from Iran, Kashgar, Afghanistan, North India and other regions and countries of the Islamic world. It deeply synthesizes both general Muslim and local Bukhara traditions. In the current version of Shashmakom, we find, first of all, the contribution of three main musical traditions – Tajik, Turkic-Uzbek and Bukharian-Jewish. Bukhara Shashmaqom influenced the formation of other local species in Central Asia – Ferghana-Tashkent maqom melodies and Khorezm maqoms. All types of Central Asian maqoms are interconnected.
The turning point in the history of the Bukhara maqoms falls on the first third of the 16th century. and it is associated with the collapse of the Herat school of maqamat and the relocation of many outstanding musicians – bearers of the maqamat tradition to Bukhara. Among them was Mawlana Najm ad-Din Kavkabi Bukhari (killed in 1532-33), who became the founder of the Bukhara school of maqomat. Within the framework of this school, the Bukhara Shashmakom was later formed.
The famous Bukhara musician Ata Jalalom (1845 – 1928) was the last major custodian of the traditions of the Bukhara Shashmakom, the head of the court maqom musicians under the three emirs of Bukhara. It was he who, relying on strict musical canons, gave the art of Bukhara Shashmaqom a new impetus for development already in the 20th century. The name of Ata Jalal and his contemporaries, numerous students and followers is associated with the bright flowering of the performing arts of the Bukhara Shashmaqom, which falls on the second half of the 19th – the first half of the 20th century. This is in general terms the history of the development of the Bukhara.

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