Avesta – is the sacred scripture of the Zoroastrian religion

“A good thought – a good word – a good deed”
Avesta – (The very name “Avesta” comes from the Middle Persian word “apastak”, later – “αβαѕtвγ” – “basis” or, according to other interpretations, “establishment”, “prescription”, “praise”) a collection of religious texts of the Zoroastrians.
Zoroastrianism is the oldest religion based on the eternal struggle between good and evil. It did not become global, but it had a great influence on such world religions as Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity and Islam.
The name of the religion comes from the name of the prophet Zarathushtra. “Avesta” is not only the sacred scripture of the Zoroastrian religion, but also one of the main sources on the history of antiquity, culture, social and political structure of the ancient peoples who once lived in our region.
Evidence of a sedentary (agricultural) population, of tribes engaged in cattle breeding, the mention of the above structure of society suggests that a more acceptable point of view in determining the chronology of the Avesta is the point of view that relates the Avesta to the beginning of the 1st millennium BC.
It was at the beginning of the 1st millennium BC. on a vast territory from the northern borders of modern Uzbekistan to Afghanistan in the south, from the Ferghana Valley in the east to the western borders of modern Turkestan, a commonality developed that corresponds to the geographical concepts of Turan and Iran reflected in the Avesta.
These are the following centers of cultural community Ferghana, Sogd and Chach.
These were early urban organisms with a complex internal organization, which arose on the basis of a settled agricultural economy based on artificial irrigation. This stage of the development of society is reflected in the “Avesta”.
Zarathushtra is the only founder of the religion (one of the assumptions is that it is translated as a camel driver or a golden camel, a zora-camel, thushatra-camel), who was first a clergyman in the old pagan, proto-Zoroastrian cult religion, and then, after receiving a revelation from the Almighty, a monotheistic prophet ( mono one) teachings.
The beginning of Zarathushtra’s prophecy is associated with a legend according to which, during the preparation for the celebration of Navruz, he had to draw water in the Amu Darya at night. He entered the water, performed ablution, received purification.
At that moment, a bright, alluring light appeared on the shore, calling to itself. Zarathushtra went to the light and among the five rays he saw Ahuramazda sitting, whose face was not visible.
A divine revelation descended on him, and he began his sermons, for which he was persecuted and forced to leave his homeland). Zoroastrianism was the state religion of the three great Iranian empires, which existed almost continuously from the 6th century BC. to the 7th century AD – Achaemenid, Parthian and Sasanian, and dominated most of the Near and Middle East.
Zoroastrianism has its roots in the deep antiquity of prehistoric times and, apparently, had a greater influence on mankind, directly or indirectly, than any other religion.
Acquaintance with him would be impossible without “Avesta” – the sacred book of the Zoroastrians, which is the most important source for studying the history of the peoples of Central Asia and was written in Persipolis (the capital of the Achaeminid state) in only one single copy on the skin of deer and cows with gold were inscribed.
Unfortunately, when Alexander the Great defeated the Achaemenids in 329 BC. e. he plundered and burned the city and with them the Avesta. Subsequently, after the conquest of the Arabs, apparently all the books were burned, but only 3 books have come down to us (according to the Berunihs, there were 21 books)
Of course, the question arises where Zoroastrianism originated, because it also gives a description of the country where Zarathushtra was born and began his activities. This is “a country where courageous leaders rule and lead numerous troops, where high mountains, abundant in pastures and waters, produce everything necessary for cattle breeding, where deep lakes with vast waters, where navigable rivers with wide channels rush their turbulent waters through the countries – Iskata ( Scythia), Pourut, Mouru (Merv), Hareva (Aria), Gava (Sogd region), Sugd (Sogd), Khvayrizem (Khorezm)”.
There is no doubt that the “navigable rivers with wide channels” are the Amu Darya and Syr Darya, and this circumstance, together with the list of countries through which they flow, firmly substantiates the Central Asian theory of the origin of the Avesta, and hence Zoroastrianism.
In the free choice between Good and Evil, an active role is assigned to the person himself. And therefore, in the time of Zarathushtra, the main duty of a person, the ethics of his behavior was reduced not so much to prayers and rituals, but to a just way of life, expressed in the triad: “a good thought – a good word – a good deed.”
According to Zoroastrianism, fire, earth, water and air are sacred and should not be mixed with objects with evil. The Avesta that has come down to us consists of books: “Yasna” – “Sacrifice”, “Prayer”.
A set of texts accompanying the main ritual ceremonies – “Yashty” – “Honoring”, “Praise”. Hymns to the deities of the Zoroastrian pantheon – “Videvdat” – “the law against the devas (demons)”, “Visprat” – “all lords”, a collection of prayers and liturgical texts.

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